Group of research questions about the prevalence of nonheterosexual product on tv
To respond to 1st group of research concerns about the prevalence of nonheterosexual material on tv, we utilized episode degree information ( e.g., percentages of episodes containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior and containing speak about intercourse associated with nonheterosexuals) and chi square analyses to look at between team distinctions with one of these nominal information. When it comes to 2nd pair of research questions, we utilized just those implies that included nonheterosexual intimate content and evaluated their regularity across 2 moment periods ( ag e.g., number of periods per hour of system time with nonheterosexual sexual talk). Of these analyses, we used t tests or analysis of variance (ANOVA) to try team differences. Significant omnibus F tests had been followed up with post hoc comparisons utilizing Tamhane’s T2 test, which will not assume equal cellular size or equal variance, to recognize significant distinctions across groups.
Results.Prevalence of Nonheterosexual Sexual Content
About one out of six programs within our examples included any sexual content (behavior or talk) pertaining to nonheterosexuals. The increase that is slight nonheterosexual intimate content through the 2001 2002 period (14.5%) into the 2002 2003 period (17.4%) ended up being significant, χ ۲ (۱, N = 2715) = 4.15, p dining Table 1 shows the portion of suggests that contained any exact same intercourse intimate behavior and any intimate talk pertaining to nonheterosexuals by system genres, by sort of system, and also by time of day aired. For community kind, the 11 channels had been categorized into certainly one of three groups: commercial broadcast (including the 3 major sites ABC, CBS, and NBC in addition to Fox, UPN, and WB), cable music activity (including BET and MTV), and premium cable film (including Cinemax, HBO, and Showtime). Pertaining to period of time broadcast, shows airing between 3:00 and 8:00 p.m. had been categorized as late evening that is afternoon/early those shown between 8:00 and 11:00 p.m. were classified as prime time.
Portion of Episodes with Same Intercourse intimate actions and Sexual Talk Related to Nonheterosexuals
Note: Within variety of community and time of day aired, percentages within the column that is same don’t share subscripts vary at p Table 1 ). In many situations, there clearly was a higher level of communication from a genre’s general positions for exact exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and mention nonheterosexual intimate dilemmas. Also, genres’ standings on these two factors had been fairly stable throughout the two tv periods.
Three genres had been consistently lower in both types of nonheterosexual sexual content: Children’s cartoons (none of which contained sexual behavior or intimate talk regarding nonheterosexuals in a choice of 12 months), news publications (0% for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 3.2per cent and 6.5%, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 2), and talk programs (0 and 3.0per cent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk in 12 months 1; 2.2 and 8.9percent, correspondingly, for behavior and talk for 12 months 2). 3 Genres that had a tendency to have the best proportions of programs with nonheterosexual content had been variety/comedy and component movie. Designed for television films and programs classified as “other” additionally had reasonably high proportions with nonheterosexual content that is sexual but, both these groups contained just only a few programs (letter = 7), which makes it tough to draw conclusions about them. Consequently, although we consist of these second two genres within the tables, we usually do not emphasize the findings connected with them.
Network kind evaluations
Across system types, we discovered comparable habits generally in nonheterosexual content that is sexual the 2 tv periods, with consistently reduced percentages of programs on commercial broadcast sites containing exact exact same intercourse intimate behavior and intimate talk linked to nonheterosexuals plus the greatest percentages of programs with both forms of content on premium cable movie sites. The typical amount of periods containing exact same intercourse intimate behavior ended up being 3.7 in 12 months 1 and dropped to 3.0 in year 2. This huge difference, nonetheless, had not been statistically significant (p = .23). Likewise a t test of this 331 episodes from year 1 and 12 months 2 that included non heterosexual intimate talk suggested that the real difference when you look at the regularity of these content between your two tv periods (4.2 periods in year 1 and 4.9 periods for 12 months 2) had not been significant (p = .18).
Number of exact Same Sex Sexual Behavior and Talk associated with Nonhetrosexuals each hour of system Time
Note: Within kind of system and period of day aired, means into the column that is same don’t share subscripts differ at p 1 For simplicity of presentation, we make use of the term “nonheterosexual” to mention collectively to any or all people whose intimate orientation just isn’t solely heterosexual, including homosexual males, http://www.redtube.zone lesbians, and bisexuals of either intercourse.
۲ one other intimate behavior category was utilized to recapture all the kinds of sexual tasks that failed to end up in the categories specified flirting, kissing, intimate touching, intercourse implied, and sexual activity depicted including low degree intimate functions such as for example leering to advanced intimate functions such as for example masturbation and bondage and control.
۳ Because our system test had been gathered between 3:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., some talk programs, such as for example Jerry Springer, that may deal more often with intimate themes are not included since they had been broadcast early in the day. The 12 talk programs within our test included those broadcast when you look at the and evening such as Oprah, Rosie O’Donnell, Ricki Lake, The Other Half, and BET Tonight as well as political talk shows (e.g., Face the Nation, McLaughlin Group, The Chris Matthews Show) afternoon.
۴ Because our examples consist of programs from both commercial broadcast and cable sites, we utilized a regular product quantity of 2 moment periods each hour of system time in place of quantity of 2 moment intervals per an hour show to evaluate the regularity of intimate behavior and speak about sex regarding nonheterosexuals. This makes up about the proven fact that commercials reduce the amount substantially of program content on broadcast networks to about 22 two moment intervals in a single hour system, whereas an hour cable programs typically have actually about 30 two minute intervals.
Deborah A. Fisher, Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Douglas L. Hill, Associate Research Scientist at Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Joel W. Grube, Director and a Senior Research Scientist at the Prevention analysis Center, Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation. Enid L. Gruber, Assistant Professor when you look at the Department of Child and Adolescent Studies at California State University, Fullerton.